Friday, May 31, 2013

Chinese Signs at Factories in Cambodia

Three months ago I stared out the window of a bus as I returned to Cambodia's capital, Phnom Penh. About 40 minutes outside of Phnom Penh I noticed a number of "for sale" or "for rent" signs for factories or land.

Land for sale

Factory for rent

I also saw a number of signs for factories apparently in use. What most caught my attention about the signs (and why I knew what they said) was that they were written in Chinese. Often no Khmer (Cambodian) writing appeared. Sometimes there was English.

Whatever these signs indicate, the number of factories in Cambodia has been growing. In The New York Times Keith Bradsher raised several key points including:
  • Some companies are motivated to have factories in Cambodia in part due to increased costs in China or perceived risks in China.
  • Costs such as worker's salaries are lower in Cambodia than in China, but those savings can be offset by other factors, such as lower productivity.
  • At least in some cases, competition for employees and strikes by workers are leading to better working conditions and increased pay.
Despite all of this, it is not surprising that total foreign investment in Cambodia remains much lower than in China. There are a variety of relevant factors, one of which is that Cambodia has a population of 14 million people while China has a population 1.3 billion. But I found another comparison Bradsher made to be especially intriguing:
...last year was the first time since comparable recordkeeping began in the 1970s that Cambodia received more foreign investment per person than China.
See the article here for more.

In the China Law Blog Dan Harris emphasized that Bradsher's report does not suggest a current massive shift of factories from China to countries such as Cambodia. He also shared how some of what his "law firm is seeing among its clients" matches up:
  • Small clothing and shoe companies that seriously looked at moving operations to Vietnam or Cambodia or but then chose not to do so because it would be “too difficult” to set up a supply chain in those places...
  • Mid-sized and large clothing and shoe companies that have put their toes into Vietnam or Cambodia by doing a bit of outsourcing from those countries or by setting up small factories there.
  • Many companies of all kinds sending people to scope out Vietnam or Cambodia and, more recently and to a lesser extent, Myanmar.
See the post here for thoughts about what the future holds for foreign manufacturers in Southeast Asia.

Although the increased number of factories in Cambodia has potential benefits for the local population, not all is rosy. For example, a factory recently collapsed and workers are protesting at a factory that makes clothing for Nike. In The Globe and Mail, Mark MacKinnon and Marina Strauss take an in-depth look at a Taiwanese firm's factory and highlight another problem in Cambodia:
At Ying Dong, it takes only a glance to realize how young some of the work force is. “There are a lot of young workers here – many are younger than her,” said 21-year-old Danet, pointing at a particularly diminutive colleague wearing a pink Ying Dong Shoes shirt. The younger girl quickly hid behind other colleagues. “Lots of the girls are 14, 15, 16, 17,” Danet said.
See the article here for more about underage workers at Ying Dong and the working conditions there.

In some ways similar to China, the interplay of companies' motivation for having factories in Cambodia, the benefits of the factories for the local population, and workers' desire to improve conditions & pay will continue. It seems likely that the number of factories in Cambodia will continue to grow. One question I have is whether the Chinese signs are suggestive of who will be behind much of that growth.

Wednesday, May 29, 2013

Scenes from Qingdao's Taidong Pedestrian Street

Many Chinese cities have at least one large pedestrian shopping street with ample space for people to walk around. Although the streets can have much in common, each one I have visited has its own unique feel due to the retail activities, fashion, advertising, architecture, food, and, of course, people which can be found there.

Below is a series of photos I took one recent cloudy afternoon around the Taidong Pedestrian Street (multiple versions of the English name are in use) in Qingdao, Shandong province. Most, if not all, of the scenes might seem unremarkable to someone who frequents the street. Yet each photo could inspire a story about life in Qingdao or China which could easily exceed the proverbial 1000 words. I'll refrain from writing another +16,000 words, though, and simply share the photos. You can learn a little more about the street, including its night market and artwork, at QINGDAO(nese) here.

Looking down Taidong Pedestrian Street from the top of a pedestrian bridge

people at Taidong Pedestrian Street

wallets on the ground for sale

small chests with British and American flag designs for sale

row of street food stalls

people sitting on a bench in front of a Walmart

people walking by large photos of models

Durian, jackfruit, and other fruit for sale next to a street

shirts for sale. one says 'so what', another says "AUTHENTC WEAR Cluct LIFE GOES ON", and other has a skull

young woman wearing a backpack with fake spikes on it

young woman for a promotion standing next to a Pepsi stand

buildings with large paintings of women

promotion for bottled drinks and other items for sale at a street corner

monk walking on a pedestrian street

little girl walking on the sidewalk

people walking at Taidong Pedestrian Street

Tuesday, May 28, 2013

A Brief Reflection on My Recent Travels

When I arrived in Malaysia five months ago, an immigration officer asked me how long I planned to stay in the country. I replied, "One week, two weeks. Actually, I'm not sure." The officer shook his head and without any more questioning stamped my passport with a visit pass good for 90 days--typical for someone from the US and number of other countries. More than six weeks later I left Malaysia on a last-minute flight to Cambodia.

I went to Southeast Asia with a desire to not only learn more about a diverse region but also gain a fresh perspective on what I already "knew". As my conversation with the immigration officer suggests, my itinerary was not set in stone. Sometimes I found myself in unexpected destinations, such as Melaka in Malaysia. Sometimes I found myself staying longer than planned, such as in Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam. Sometimes I found myself heading away from a country I had hoped to visit, such as Indonesia.

After several months in Southeast Asia I could have productively continued my explorations, but Taiwan beckoned. And then I returned to a country I had not set foot in for several years--the US. As in Southeast Asia, there were unexpected destinations, periods of lingering, and changed plans. After the US, I headed to Seoul. Like so many of the other places, I walked many miles, spent time with fascinating people, and did not skimp on the culinary offerings.

Although my return to China means a resurgence of topics related to it and other old favorites, I plan to continue sharing what I experienced, learned, and pondered during my recent time outside of China. I have some specific goals in mind, but if you asked me to say exactly what I will be posting next week I'd reply, "Actually, I'm not sure."

Monday, May 27, 2013

Remembering Days in Dallas and Keene

Today I thought about a former commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces and my visit several weeks ago to Elm Street in Dallas, Texas.

Elm Street at Dealey Plaza in Dallas, Texas

The street was the site of an unfortunate event in U.S. history. Near where I took the above photograph is The Sixth Floor Museum at Dealey Plaza and a grassy knoll. The museum provides an in-depth look at the assassination of a US president. And not far away is a memorial plaza.

John F. Kennedy Memorial

Of course, many others have died while serving the US. And today I also pondered the words said by Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. (via) on Memorial Day, May 30, 1884, at Keene, New Hampshire, as he referenced what is still the deadliest war in American history. He addressed why the observation of Memorial Day should be continued and how to remember those who died in a war that pitted Americans against each other. In conclusion, Holmes said:
When we meet thus, when we do honor to the dead in terms that must sometimes embrace the living, we do not deceive ourselves. We attribute no special merit to a man for having served when all were serving. We know that, if the armies of our war did anything worth remembering, the credit belongs not mainly to the individuals who did it, but to average human nature. We also know very well that we cannot live in associations with the past alone, and we admit that, if we would be worthy of the past, we must find new fields for action or thought, and make for ourselves new careers.

But, nevertheless, the generation that carried on the war has been set apart by its experience. Through our great good fortune, in our youth our hearts were touched with fire. It was given to us to learn at the outset that life is a profound and passionate thing. While we are permitted to scorn nothing but indifference, and do not pretend to undervalue the worldly rewards of ambition, we have seen with our own eyes, beyond and above the gold fields, the snowy heights of honor, and it is for us to bear the report to those who come after us. But, above all, we have learned that whether a man accepts from Fortune her spade, and will look downward and dig, or from Aspiration her axe and cord, and will scale the ice, the one and only success which it is his to command is to bring to his work a mighty heart.

Such hearts--ah me, how many!--were stilled twenty years ago; and to us who remain behind is left this day of memories. Every year--in the full tide of spring, at the height of the symphony of flowers and love and life--there comes a pause, and through the silence we hear the lonely pipe of death. Year after year lovers wandering under the apple trees and through the clover and deep grass are surprised with sudden tears as they see black veiled figures stealing through the morning to a soldier's grave. Year after year the comrades of the dead follow, with public honor, procession and commemorative flags and funeral march--honor and grief from us who stand almost alone, and have seen the best and noblest of our generation pass away.

But grief is not the end of all. I seem to hear the funeral march become a paean. I see beyond the forest the moving banners of a hidden column. Our dead brothers still live for us, and bid us think of life, not death--of life to which in their youth they lent the passion and joy of the spring. As I listen, the great chorus of life and joy begins again, and amid the awful orchestra of seen and unseen powers and destinies of good and evil our trumpets sound once more a note of daring, hope, and will.

Partial Collapse of Pier to Huilan Pavilion in Qingdao

Huilan Pavilion in Qingdao on a foggy and not-so-busy day last week
Last night in Qingdao was one of those nights when typical umbrellas show their mortality. In other words, it was very windy and rainy. And sadly, the cheap umbrella I bought almost 2 years ago in Yuli, Taiwan, will never again do what umbrellas do best.

The rain and winds stopped today and around lunch time I took a walk over to Qingdao Bay. While there I noticed that the usually busy pier to the Huilan Pavilion, which can be found on the logo for Tsingtao beer, was empty. I then noticed a curious number of police and the closure of beach areas adjacent to the pier.

Police doing some of what they do best
Security doing some of what they do best

And then I noticed a portion of the pier had collapsed.

That seems to explain it.

According to one report (in Chinese), the collapse happened last night during the storm. Fortunately, no casualties were reported. Given last night's weather, it would be surprising if anyone had been on the pier during the storm. And for dog lovers out there, it would also be surprising if any dogs were sitting on top of concrete posts next to the water.

A dog two years ago in Qingdao doing some of what dogs might do best

I suppose I could now try to make a strained analogy with China's Great Firewall or collapsing bridges in the US, but finding that dog photo while digging through some earlier photos from Qingdao broke my flow. So I'll leave it at this.

Thursday, May 23, 2013

Back in 中国

Almost exactly five months ago, I flew out of China from Xiamen in Fujian province. Since then I have celebrated New Year's in Kuala Lumpur, listened to a woman in Penang talk about a frustrating experience trying to enter the US, reacted to an attack I saw in Melaka, rode a bike through the Cambodian countryside near Kampot, snacked on spiders, observed people riding motorbikes in Phnom Penh, worked while sipping on drinks at cafes in Ho Chi Minh City, soaked up the atmosphere at a temple in Taipei, considered the unexpected connections my mind made while visiting the U.S., and wondered why a woman in Seoul sat outside a mosque while holding a book written by George W. Bush. And there was much, much more.

Today, after yet another international flight I took a walk through a market.

woman selling vegetables at a street market

In some ways it felt so different from the places I've been during the past five months. In some ways it felt so familiar to me. That's probably because the market is in Qingdao, Shandong province. Yes, I'm back in China (中国).

More about that soon.

Monday, May 20, 2013

Games in Seoul and Changsha

While passing through Seoul's Jongmyo Park today, I noticed a number of men playing games.

two men playing baduk (Go) at a park in Seoul

two men playing janggi (Korean Chess) at a park in Seoul

two men playing baduk (Go) at Jongmyo Park in Seoul

I was reminded of the park where I saw men playing games in Changsha, China. But instead of games such as xiangqi (Chinese chess), most of the men at Jongmyo Park were playing baduk (Go) and a few others were playing janggi (Korean chess). There's much else one could consider in comparing the scenes from Seoul and Changsha. And one's perspective could affect how similar or different they appear.

Sunday, May 19, 2013

Lanterns in Seoul for Buddha's Birthday

Similar to some other Asian countries, South Korea celebrated Buddha's birthday this past Friday. One clear sign of the holiday I noticed was the many lanterns on display, especially at Buddhist temples. The colors, shapes, variety, and arrangement of the lanterns added another layer to the experience of walking through the temples I recently visited. To provide a small taste, I'll share a series of photos I took at the Bongeunsa Temple in Seoul.

lanterns at Bongeunsa Temple in Seoul

lanterns at Bongeunsa Temple in Seoul

woman praying under many red lanterns at Bongeunsa Temple in Seoul

lanterns at Bongeunsa Temple in Seoul

outdoor path with lanterns at Bongeunsa Temple

red lanterns at Bongeunsa Temple in Seoul

white lanterns at Bongeunsa Temple in Seoul

lanterns at Bongeunsa Temple with city skyline in the background

lanterns handing from a colorful ceiling at Bongeunsa Temple in Seoul

lanterns at Bongeunsa Temple in Seoul

For more lanterns in Seoul, see My Modern Met here and the Mail Online here (H/T Justin Ray).

Thursday, May 16, 2013

Sitting With Bush in Front of a Korean Mosque

Today in South Korea I visited the Seoul Central Mosque. Seoul's only mosque and the neighborhood around it provide an opportunity to learn more about the lives of a group of people in South Korea numbering in only the tens of thousands--Korean Muslims.

As I was passing by the mosque a second time I noticed a woman sitting in front of the main gate.

woman with a book sitting in front of the gate to the Seoul Central Mosque

Notably, she was holding a book in a manner which suggested she wanted passersby to notice it. I took a closer look and saw the book was none other than the English version of Decision Points, a memoir by George W. Bush.

I found this to be... curious.

So I approached the woman and asked if she had read the book. She had.

I then asked what she thought of George W. Bush. She said she respected the former president of the US because of his efforts to fight terrorism.

I waited to see if she would say more on her own. She only said that I could visit the mosque and that she occasionally walks around its grounds herself.

Since I sensed she was not entirely comfortable and I suspected a long conversation might be required to fully answer the questions now in my mind, I decided to simply wish her a good day and walked away to continue my explorations in the area.

If I have a chance, though, I might see if she's later willing to continue the conversation. I wouldn't be surprised if I could find her in the same spot with the same book on another day.

Monday, May 13, 2013

Seoulish Jujubes

I've enjoyed my fair share of tea in China, including at a mountain lake in Changsha. This afternoon, I had the pleasure of being introduced to an historic teahouse in Seoul, South Korea.

As surprising as it may seem, I didn't drink any tea. Instead, my friend suggested a jujube (red date) drink. It proved to be an excellent choice as we chatted about a variety of topics, ranging from monkeys in museums to online services in South Korea.

A good afternoon in Seoul it was.

Saturday, May 11, 2013

Watching Major League Baseball in Seoul

As I walked through Namdaemun Market in Seoul, South Korea, this past Monday, I saw several men watching a baseball game between the Los Angeles Dodgers and the San Francisco Giants.

three men watching a American baseball game on a TV outside at a market

Notably, the starting pitcher for the Dodgers was South Korean Hyun-Jin Ryu. This is Ryu's first season playing for Major League Baseball in North America. Possibly to the disappointment of these viewers, this was not one of Ryu's finer games. He gave up 4 earned run in 6 innings and the Dodgers lost the game. Ryu now has a record of 3 wins and 2 losses for the season.

Friday, May 10, 2013

A Sign for How to Get Out of Jail

Several years ago when I arrived in Baltimore, Maryland, after a long series of flights from Shanghai, I saw a sign that evoked a set of thoughts and emotions different from those when I recently saw a sign in San Jose, California. This sign wasn't inside an elevator but instead was inside a light rail train I rode from Baltimore's airport. Here's a blurry photo of the sign:

advertisement for bali bonds

Baltimore is certainly not the only place in the US where one can see ads for bail bonds. For example, I recently saw this set of ads conveniently placed above a urinal at a restaurant in Pensacola, Florida:

several ads including two for bail bonds

Of the six ads, two are for bail bonds.

When I used to live in Baltimore, I'm not sure I would have given as much thought to the signs. But after years of living in China, advertisements for bail bonds service struck me as remarkable. In both cases, I considered what they said about the US. On one hand, the advertisements could be seen as indicative of some positive aspects, including the guarantee that "excessive bail shall not be required", of the US legal system. On the other hand, they could also be seen as indicative of its less-than-positive aspects, including the high number of people in the US who are in jail or facing possible jail time.

I don't plan to offer any commentary about any similarities or differences in bail practices between the US and China*. I share this simply because the sign in Baltimore provided me a first impression I had not expected upon my return to the US. Also, it was one of many examples of how being outside the US for a period of time had caused me to consider what I saw in the US with a fresh or new perspective. And like the example in San Jose, it raises a host of questions about how a foreigner might react if this is one of their first impressions of the US.

*If you're interested to learn some basics about bail in China, one overview from several years ago can be found in the Op-Ed "Bail in China: A Crucial Human Right" by Jerome A. Cohen on the website for the Council on Foreign Relations.

Wednesday, May 8, 2013

First Impressions: A Warning in San Jose

Imagine you've been living in China for years and often wonder whether its air, food, water, or other potential sources of dangerous chemicals are having a significant negative impact on your health. But today is different because you've just arrived at the international airport in San Jose, California. It feels safer here.

Perhaps you're overjoyed to see the clear blue sky. Maybe you're eager to buy some fruits & vegetables from an organic market. Possibly you're thinking about a trip to the mountains where you'll enjoy some fresh air.

So after going through immigration and customs, you're excited to begin your time in San Jose. As you're considering what to do first, you enter an elevator in the airport. After the door closes, you notice this sign:

sign with message "NOTICE. WARNING: This area contains chemicals known to the State of California to cause cancer, or birth defects or other reproductive harm. California Cod of Regulations Title 22, Section 1260."

Some of these thoughts may now run through your mind:
  • Is my health at risk?
  • Why would they put up this sign instead of fixing the problem?
  • If there isn't any problem, why put up this sign?
  • Why wasn't this message provided before I entered the elevator?
  • How quickly can I get out of here?
There are other possibilities, many of which could be more colorful. Whatever the case, your trip to San Jose has begun with a rather unexpected experience and set of emotions.

Californians might shrug off this sign. Having additional context can matter. But what would you think if this was one of the first signs you saw when visiting an unfamiliar country? What might it say about the country? What might it not say? How might it influence your perceptions of the country? How might it influence your perceptions of your own country?

More later. I'll continue this theme in the next post with another example of a sign I saw in the US.

Tuesday, May 7, 2013

Reconnecting With Another Unexpected Connection

Yesterday, I made another unexpected connection when I was at Seoul Plaza in Seoul, South Korea.

people relaxing on the grass at Seoul Plaza

While there I was reminded of my visit to Klyde Warren Park in Dallas, US.

people relaxing on the grass at Klyde Warren Park

And in case you're wondering, yes, this post ends my longest non-posting period since starting this blog. The pause was partly due to having plenty on my plate* during my first visit to the US in several years. Another reason was that when my plate appeared empty, it seemed like a good time to keep it that way.

But now I'm back, both in terms of blogging and being in Asia. Although I am eager to return to the usual themes, while they are still fresh in my mind I will share some assorted thoughts about my several weeks in the US.

More soon. Really.

*This was meant figuratively, but the literal interpretation also holds true.